The True Gold Standard (Second Edition)
Key Writings: Hanke on the Gold Standard
Central banks issue currency and exercise wide discretion over the conduct of monetary policy. Although widespread today, central banks are relatively new institutional arrangements. In 1900, there were only 18 central banks in the world. By 1940, 40 countries had them, and today there are 174. Of those, 6 are bound by currency board rules that do not permit discretionary monetary policies. In addition, there are seven monetary authorities that operate as stand-alone currency boards.
BY STEVE HANKE: